Review of Newmarket Films and Memento
Who is Newmarket Films?
Newmarket Films was founded in 1994 as a subsidiary of Newmarket Capital Group, a Los Angeles based film production and distribution company who has had a role in financing over 80 titles. Newmarket Films has distributed 33 titles, including 6 original productions, at a rate of about 2 to 6 films per year since their first release in 2000.
The company has produced the Christopher Nolan films The Prestige and Memento and such films as The Mexican and Cruel Intentions. In North America, Newmarket has also distributed such popular titles as The Passion of the Christ, Donnie Darko, Whale Rider, Monster and God Grew Tired of Us.
Newmarket and the development of Memento
Although Newmarket was established in 1994, it did not release its first successful original production until six years later in 2000. Kicking off the new millennium in strong fashion, the film released by Newmarket Films was Memento. According to James Mottram’s book, The Making of Memento, the path to success for the film was an unlikely one.
IMDB.com calls Memento a “Mystery Thriller”. Wikipedia says Memento is an “American neo-noir psychological thriller film.” However, one may define it, many would agree that it was a breath of fresh air to the industry at the time it was released. Made for less than $5 Million, Memento generated an exponentially higher profit margin than that year’s $140 Million wide released blockbuster, Pearl Harbor. Newmarket was a new company breathing new life into the new moving making industry.
Memento was written and directed by Christopher Nolan. He adapted it from his younger brother Jonathan’s short story Memento Mori, although the story and the movie only barely resemble one another.
Memento was cutting edge in 2001 as the structure of the film consists of two different sequences of scenes. A series of black-and-white sequences are shown in correct chronological order, and a series color sequences are shown in reverse chronological order. The sequences come together at the end of the film, resolving one common story.
According to Mottram, In 1996, Christopher Nolan was relocating his home to the West Coast and in July he and his brother Jonathan took a road trip to Los Angeles from Chicago. During the drive, Jonathan shared his story idea with his brother. Christopher loved the idea so much that he insisted Jonathan send him a first draft once he got back to college in D.C. Jonathan obliged. Soon thereafter, while Christopher was working on the screenplay, he came up with the idea to tell the story backwards on film. As he worked on the screenplay, he continued to correspond with his brother Jonathan, who was writing the short story.
Memento Mori, the short story by Jonathan Nolan, is significantly different from Christopher’s film. However, the main thematic elements remain consistent. In Jonathan’s version, the lead character is named Earl rather than Leonard. He is a patient at a mental institution.
Like the film, his wife was killed by an anonymous man, and while trying to defend her, Earl was struck and lost his ability to create new long-term memories. Earl, like Leonard, creates tattoos on his own body and leaves notes to himself with information about the killer. However, in Jonathan’s short story, Earl convinces himself to escape the mental health facility and track down his the man who murdered his wife. But unlike the film, there is no question that Earl finds and kills the anonymous man.
In the movie Memento, The main character is Leonard Shelby, played by Guy Pearce (L.A. Confidential). For reasons that become apparent in the storyline, he suffers from anterograde amnesia. In other words he can’t remember anything for more than a few minutes at a time. His condition severely hinders his short term memory and, to compensate, he uses notes, Polaroid photos, and even permanent tattoos to remember important information.
The movie opens with Leonard shooting Teddy (Joe Pantoliano) in the head and the story moves backward from there to explain what preceded such a dramatic moment. The twists and turns along the way make for a compelling story that immediately pulls in the viewer and does not let go until the ending credits roll onto the screen.
One year after moving to L.A., Christopher was making headway on the Hollywood scene. Eventually he was dating Oscar-winning actress, producer, Emma Thomas. Emma showed her boyfriend’s screenplay to a colleague of hers – Newmarket Films executive, Aaron Ryder. Ryder said the script was, “perhaps the most innovative script I had ever seen”. Newmarket agreed. They optioned the film and gave it a budget of $4.5 million.
The lead role of Leonard was initially going to be played by Brad Pitt. He was interested in the part, but passed due to scheduling conflicts. Other actors were considered including Aaron Eckhart and Thomas Jane, but Guy Pearce impressed Nolan the most. Pearce was chosen for both his talent and his enthusiasm for the role, and the fact that Pearce was not a huge celebrity actually turned out to be an asset. According to Mottram, the studio “decided to eschew the pursuit of A-list stars and make the film for less money by using an affordable quality actor”.
Producer, Jennifer Todd suggested Carrie-Anne Moss for the part of Natalie. Jennifer had been impressed by Moss’ portrayal of Trinity in the 1999 blockbuster The Matrix. Christopher Nolan agreed to cast Moss as Natalie, saying, “She added an enormous amount to the role of Natalie that wasn’t on the page”. For the role of Teddy, a corrupt police officer, Moss considered Joe Pantoliano, her co-star from The Matrix. According to Mottram’s book The Making of Memento, there was a concern that Pantoliano might be “too villainous for the part” but he was still cast, and Nolan said he was surprised by the actor’s subtlety in his performance. Once the three main leads were established, the rest of the film’s characters were quickly cast after.
To save money and create a more film noir and realistic atmosphere for the picture, the main shooting location was moved from Montreal to Los Angeles. Pre-production lasted seven weeks. Production was on a 25-day shooting schedule from September 7 to October 8, 1999. The three principal actors (Guy Pearce, Joe Pantoliano and Carrie-Anne Moss) only worked together on the first day although Pearce was on set every shooting day. All of Moss’ scenes were shot the first week. Pantoliano continued filming his scenes when he returned to the set late in the second week. Pearce’s voice-overs were recorded after filming was completed. He was given free license to improvise his narrative for the black-and-white scenes to give them more of a documentary feel.
Memento had difficulty finding domestic distribution and revealed the unchallenged expectations held by distributors about American independent films and their audiences at that time. Distributors wanted to find a film with the potential for crossover success, rather than one that leant more towards the art-house end of the independant film industry. They were concerned that Memento would not appeal to American audiences, as it might to European audiences, and was, effectively, “too smart.” The goal, was to marry art-house with commercial and the multiplexing of art-house films in the 1980’s and 1990’s lay the groundwork of Newmarket’s success.
By the late 90’s, the move to popularize art-house theaters with the same audience interest as general audience theaters had birthed unparalleled success in the independent film sector. Public discourse began to define the word “indie” against “independent”, as a new marketing label directed towards, as Landmark boats of the audiences of their independent theater, Magnolia, “sophisticated, intelligent, upscale adults seeking an alternative to the megaplex madhouse.” This enabled independent films to become a marketing category in and of itself through it’s perceived audience superiority. According to William Tryer, Newmarket recognized that the discourse offered by this audience niche was integral to marketing their films.
Memento received a standing ovation when it premiered at the 2000 Venice International Film Festival. Soon after, it played at Deauville American Film Festival and the Toronto International Film Festival. Its promotional tour ended in January 2001 at the Sundance Film Festival. With the publicity from the festivals and similar events, Newmarket was easily able to find foreign distributors for Memento. The film opened in more than 20 countries worldwide.
Jennifer and Suzanne Todd were selected to give Memento just that marketable niche touch. The Todds were pivotal in the film’s pre production having designed the twenty-five-day production schedule but, chosen locations, cast, and crew, but they were also crucial in the final draft of the screenplay. Having producing credentials that would have suggested different ends, the sisters were surprised when, despite the distributor’s extremely positive reactions to the screening in March 2001, the film only resulted in only two offers, one from Trimark and the other from Paramount Classics. The Todds immediately refused both offers on the grounds that they were too low.
According to Richard Natale of the LA Times, “Memento was warmly received at the Toronto and Sundance film festivals and generated glowing reviews, catapulting Nolan into the mainstream… ‘Too smart,’ like ‘arty,’ has entered the film industry lexicon as a pejorative description. The story of Memento, about a man (Guy Pearce) with short-term memory loss, is told in reverse–a complicated premise to be sure–which in part explains distributors’ reluctance. But audiences have been enthusiastic, and the $5-million film has grossed more than $8.5 million in less than two months, including $1.2 million this weekend.”
No surprise that Tryer refused the previous offers. “If we had had an offer for $8million, we would have said ‘fine’, but that $8million offer never came. People thought it was too difficult, too obscure, and had no commercial potential,” he said in an interview in 2001.
When the famous independent film director Steven Soderbergh saw the film and learned it was not being distributed, he gave it even more publicity by talking up the film in interviews and other events. Soderbergh, however, did not secure a distributor. Finally, in an effort of last resort, Newmarket decided to take the financial risk and distribute the film itself.
Also, by the late 90’s, the internet was widely accepted as a platform for the independant film, and in a way, possibly its savior, allowing the independent filmmaker to reach as many audience members as a commercial film might. Fred Schruers, writer for Wired.com, writes that “there was a time in the indie film business when specialty houses from the major studios stalked the earth, reaching into deep pockets to acquire the rights to distribute the buzziest films at the coolest festivals — notably Sundance.” Schruers goes on to speculate that the the rise of internet marketing may be the answer. For Newmarket, it certainly was.
In fact, for Memento, the extratextual material offered through the means of the website, www.otnemem.com (Memento spelled backwards), was one of the key marketing aspects for the film. The website was a success. Nontraditional, in that it didn’t contain information on cast and crew, the site offered a broken backstory to the main character, Leonard, leading up to the time the film took place in, and fractured information on what may have come of Leonard after the time the film took place in. The Memento site consisted of notes, seemingly written by Leonard himself, psychiatric reports, police reports, and polaroids that through audience participation, pieced together a story that implies that Leonard may have been an escaped patient of a psychiatric ward that is still on the loose and that Leonards wife, who supposedly die before the time film took place, may not actually be dead.
The website was an extraordinary example of interactive media. The questions aroused by the extra material offered to online viewers resulted in lengthy discussions about the film, it’s backstory, and it’s artificial present in online forums. Christopher Nolan recounts, that “a larger experience than filmmakers have to do… You can increase people’s understanding of the film, allowing them to re-experience it again…. When I saw read the message boards, I saw that people took different bits of information from the site and interpreted them differently.”
The website was incorporated into the overall marketing strategy supported by grassroots publicity moves that included handing out polaroids with only the website address written on the back during festivals as well as bulk mailings of polaroids, again, with only the website address, to randomly chosen homes. Not only was this strategy cost effective but helped to direct public attention to the website which built intrigue and widespread online debate about not only the film’s conclusion (or lack thereof) but of it’s beginnings as well.
Alongside film trailers, edited by Nolan Himself, which were placed on cable television channels as well as on the Yahoo and MSN websites, the film’s website was a key aspect of its marketing supported by grassroots strategies such as handing out postcards with only the web address at festivals and bulk mailing of Polaroid photographs to randomly chosen homes, again carrying only the website details.
As the buzz increased over the films highly intellectual storyline and ambiguity, audiences became increasingly interested in Nolan as a struggling cinematic artist. Nolan’s first feature, Following, whose end budget was approximately $6,000, earned Nolan a enough of a name for himself as a low budget guerilla filmmaker who creates highly conceptual work to eventually garner a larger budget for his next film, Memento. Nolan’s ode to noir and personal attachment to the film, as it was based on his brother, combined with the intelligent storyline made Nolan into the darling of intellectual cinematic discourse, and was later deemed the new Stanley Kubrick. Nolan’s rising popularity and all-american underdog reputation for overcoming Hollywood’s over-commercialized environment with intellectually superior art was its own publicity strategy for Memento.
“I’m always very inclusive and believe the marketing, particularly for independent films, kind of comes organically out of the writer and director knowing the story and what audience they’re going to reach. I try to work with the filmmakers to use the assets that they’ve brought to the production to ultimately sell the film,” Tryer muses in an interview.
Memento’s target audience not only includes the intellectual crowd. Memento was intentionally placed in theaters near colleges garnering a interest by young adults, particularly college students. This platform release strategy contributed, in part, to the film’s crossover success. Festival screenings screenings on the art-house circuit, and niche advertising played an important part in the film’s marketing and publicity success as well.
In particular, Memento’s poster advertising both online and in print has very little textual detail, often only including the website, the names of the three key actors, and the key crew. Nolan’s name, interestingly enough, is not prominent in any marketing posters. With only the phrase “Some memories are best forgotten” or an image of Leonard’s tattoo revealing the words “raped and murdered,” the film adds to the obscurity of the marketing strategy. The soundtrack, listed in the advertisements included underground and niche music featuring Paul Oakenfold, Radiohead, Moby and Björk was another key to targeting the young college audience. These artists represent what is “cool” in the industry and “cool” is marketable.
Clive and Pamela Nancarrow and Julia Page, in the Journal of Consumer Behaviour, define “cool” as ““a form of cultural capital that increasingly consists of insider knowledge about commodities and consumption practices as yet unavailable to the mainstream.” Interestingly enough, none of these artists’ music were actually in the film, but instead were included in purchasable CD entitled, Memento: Music for and Inspired by the film. What association with the film offered, however, was a cool status, particularly tantalizing to young adults.
On September 5, 2000, Memento debuted at the Venice International Film Festival. The critics loved it. The following month it was released in European theaters and, almost overnight, Newmarket Films was on the proverbial map. According to Mottram, “Critics especially praised Memento’s unique, nonlinear narrative structure and themes of memory, perception, grief, deception, and revenge.”
According to BoxOfficeMojo.com, Memento opened as an exclusive release in just 11 theaters, but by week 11 it was being shown in more than 500 theaters. It grossed $25,544,867 in North America and $14,178,229 internationally.
It was clear that in addition to critical acclaim (and perhaps more importantly) Memento was a success at the box office. In total, Memento grossed about $40 million worldwide earning more than eight times its production costs. During its theatrical peak, it was the number eight highest-grossing movie for a single weekend.
The film’s success was surprised those who had passed on the film. Harvey Weinstein even tried to acquire the film from Newmarket once he realized his mistake. It was too late, Memento was already a hit and Newmarket was off and running on its own.
Fans, critics and festivals were not the only ones on board. The film was well received by the Hollywood establishment as well. It won 13 awards for Best Screenplay and five awards for Best Picture from various film critic associations and festivals, including the Chicago Film Critics Association and the Sundance Waldo Salt Screenwriting Award. It was also nominated for Academy Awards in Original Screenplay and Editing as well as for the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival. Memento was also nominated for the Grand Prix, a prestigious award given by the Belgian Syndicate of Cinema Critics. The Film Critics Societies of Los Angeles and Las Vegas recognized Pearce for Best Actor.
Christopher Nolan was nominated for three major awards including a Directors Guild of America Award. Jonathan Nolan’s Memento Mori received an Original Screenplay nomination (instead of Adapted Screenplay) because it had not been published prior to the film’s release. Both Christopher and Jonathan received Academy Awards nominations. In the four years previous to the debut of Memento, the brothers had no idea that a simple road trip and a cooky story idea would have lead to so many accolades.
Newmarket Since Memento
Passion of the Christ was a very interesting distribution case for Newmarket. It was released in 2004. Directed and produced by Mel Gibson, it starred Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ. The film spans the final 12 hours of Jesus’ life, starting with the Agony in the Garden and finishing with a brief depiction of his resurrection. The dialogue is entirely in reconstructed Aramaic and Latin and it was subtitled for final exhibition. When Gibson began production he had not secured funding for the production. He knew he could not get backing from the Hollywood studios: “This is a film about something that nobody wants to touch, shot in two dead languages. In Los Angeles they think I am insane, and maybe I am” Gibson said in an interview for Independent magazine.
The film was going to be tilted The Passion but Miramax already had that title registered with the MPAA. So the title was changed to Passion of Christ. Later it was renamed The Passion of the Christ for all markets. Gibson and his production company, Icon Productions assumed most of the $45 million budget including production and marketing.
In order to avoid the spectacle of other studios turning down the film and to avoid subjecting the distributor to the same intense public criticism he had received, Gibson decided to distribute the movie in the United States himself, in a negotiation with Newmarket Films. In the past, even independent companies like Miramax, having Disney as a parent company, got in trouble for releasing films like “Priest” that portrayed the life of a homosexual catholic priest. Newmarket didn’t have that problem, although it is questionable that it affected the company in the long run as it affected Mel Gibson and the actor Jim Caviezel.
“I have known and worked with Will Tyrer and Chris Ball over the years and they get where we are coming from,” commented Bruce Davey, co-producer of the film in an interview for Independent magazine. “They, and Bob Berney, are as passionate as we are about this film, and I know they will make a great contribution to the release of The Passion of Christ.” The Co-Founders of Newmarket Capital Group have enjoyed business relationship with Icon, having financed Hamlet and other projects. William Tyrer added in an interview: “We are pleased to expand our relationship with Icon to a new platform with this theatrical release. We are uniquely qualified to carefully handle this artistic achievement and honored to have the opportunity to be involved with such an important film.”
The deal was negotiated by Bruce Davey, Icon Productions and William Tyrer, Newmarket Films and Jeff Berg.
Newmarket used a reduced scale campaign on TV, including Rick Hendrix, a personality in the christian faith. They didn’t use press ads. The Passion of the Christ was promoted in a big way by churches and faith groups. Many of them gave away tickets to screenings. It was released on Ash Wednesday, February 25, 2004 in a total of 3,006 theaters. It was expanded to 3,040 for a second week after an increase of 125% peaking on week 7 at 3,408 theaters, precisely timed for the catholic Holy Week, after which it began its decline for a total run of 22 weeks. It had considerable success internationally, especially in heavily catholic nations as Spain and Italy and through south america, notably in Brazil. Icon Entertainment distributed the theatrical version of the film, and 20th Century Fox distributed the VHS/DVD/Blu-ray version of the film.
Needless to say, the film was a major commercial hit, grossing in excess of $370 million during its theatrical lifetime locally and more than $240 million internationally. Rated R by the Motion Picture Association of America for “sequences of graphic violence” it is the highest grossing film under that classification to date. The film has also been highly controversial and received mixed reviews, with some critics claiming that the extreme violence in the movie “obscures its message.” Catholic sources have questioned the authenticity of the non-biblical material the film drew on. But financially, the production was a huge success after taking on an enormous risk and long standing consequences for future business.
Monster (2003) is a crime drama film following the life events of serial killer Aileen Wuornos, a prostitute who was given the death penalty in Florida in 2002 for assassinating six men in the late 1980s. With a budget of 8 million, the film was written and directed by Patty Jenkins. Wuornos was portrayed by Charlize Theron. For the role, the actress gained over thirty pounds. In a Reuters interview, she said that put on the gain eating potato chips. Theron won seventeen awards for her portrayal, including the Academy Award for Best Actress, Golden Globe Award for Best Actress and the Screen Actors Guild Awards for Outstanding Lead Actress.
Making her major motion picture filmmaking debut, director Patty Jenkins obtained a big part of the research material for the film by exchanging correspondence with the real Aileen Wuornos before her execution. In a CNN interview Jenkins said that she also used, “Court documents … lots of footage of her interviews, all of the transcripts and depositions from those trials.”
The filmmakers went to Port Orange, Florida to film at The Last Resort, a local bar there that the real Aileen Wuornos used to be a frequent customer. The bar’s owner, Al Bulling, said of Charlize Theron on an interview for CNN “Every minute she was in this bar she was in character. Everything she did – from lighting cigarettes to laughing – was on target …and how she acted, it was beyond excellent.”
Charlize Theron was in fact the producer of Monster. In the CNN interview, director Patty Jenkins said: “It was great. She really signed on as producer because I think that she knew, as did I, that there is a long hard road for a movie like this. And [the movie] can get pushed and pulled in all kinds of different directions. So instead of being this … overlord as producer … she really just put herself in a position where she could really defend what it was we wanted to do. And fight for it.”
The movie was released barely 2 weeks before the new year. Hardly a holiday film, the 8 theater release was designed to classify for the oscar nominations, which happened in January 25, 2004. The nomination for best actress prompted an increase from 300 to 600 theaters in weeks 5 to 6, peaking during week 8 in 1,090 theaters and a box office of $4.7 million. The $8 million budget film produced more than $34 million in its theatrical lifetime locally and more than $25 million internationally.
Film critics praised Monster; most gave overwhelmingly high praise to Theron’s performance as an unattractive, mentally ill woman – Wuornos had antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. For the role, Theron gained 30 pounds and wore prosthetic teeth. Critics called her performance, and her makeup, a “transformation”. Film critic Roger Ebert named it best film of the year, and wrote “What Charlize Theron achieves in Patty Jenkins’ ‘Monster’ isn’t a performance but an embodiment… [It] is one of the greatest performances in the history of the cinema.”
The film won Theron the Academy Award for Best Actress, Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Drama and the SAG Award.
Whale Rider (2002) directed by Niki Caro, from a book of the same name written by Witi Ihimaera, was another or Newmarket opportunity hits. The film tells the story of a Maori girl who gets in a conflict with her father for wanting to become the chief of the tribe. Keisha Castle-Hughes starred as Kahu Paikea Apirana. The film had budget of NZ$9,235,000 ($3.5 million). It received $2.5 million from the New Zealand Film Production Fund. Additional financing came from ApolloMedia, Filmstiftung NRW, the New Zealand Film Commission and NZ On Air.
The film was a co-production between New Zealand and Germany. It was shot on location in Whangara, the setting of the novel. The rights to Ihimaera’s novel were acquired by producers Murray Newey and John Barnett in the early 90s. The screenplay went through multiple drafts. At one stage Ian Mune was attached to direct.
Diana Rowan, the casting director visited a number of schools looking for the right actress for the role of Pai. More than 10,000 were auditioned before shortlisting to 12. The little actress impressed the film director to get the cast position.
Producer John Barnett said in a press release for the movie: “This novel was set in Whangara and it would almost have been heresy to shoot anywhere else. There are very physical things that are described in the book – the sweep of the bay, the island that looks like a whale, the meeting houses, the number of houses that are present and of course, the people whose legend we were telling… If we’d gone somewhere else and tried to manufacture the surroundings and the ambience, then I think it would have been noticeable in the picture.” The whale beaching was depicted using full scale models.
The world premiere was at the Toronto International Film Festival. The film received the audience award. It also won the same distinction at Sundance in January of 2003. The movie debuted in New Zealand the same month and became a huge success (total of $3.5 million). Newmarket acquired the movie for less than $1 million and initially opened Whale Rider in the US in a few art house theaters in New York and Los Angeles in June of 2003, but gradually shifted its focus to market the film to a broader audience.
It peaked on August 29 (week 13) with a box office of $1.8 million. One of the tactics Bob Berney – then president of Newmarket – used to promote the film was market it as being family-friendly. “We changed the poster to have Keisha’s face on it,” Berney said in an interview. “Parents would get inspired by the film first and then start bringing their daughters to see the movie.”
The $1 million acquisition was hugely multiplied, for a combined local and international box office of $35 million (excluding New Zealand). Castle-Hughes was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress and the movie won the Independent Spirit Award for best foreign film in 2004.
Newmarket Films was acquired by Exclusive Media Groups (EMG) in 2009. EMG comprises Newmarket films, Spitfire pictures, Hammer and Exclusive Film Distribution, with offices in California and the UK. When they acquired Newmarket, they got access to more than 250 titles to expand their portfolio of more than 300. At the time of the arrangement Chris Ball became part of EMG operations.
Chris Ball left EMG in 20120 and formed a new company named Wrekin Hill, taking some of EMG’s talent with him. The Newmarket Film label, meanwhile, is being licensed by Wrekin Hill for use on a non-exclusive basis with other titles planned for release under the Wrekin banner. Newmarket and Wrekin Hill unveiled that they will jointly release select upcoming titles from Exclusive, The Way Back starring Ed Harris and Colin Farrell, and The Last Play at Shea, a Billy Joel rock documentary, and the Newmarket Sundance acquisition Hesher starring Joseph Gordon Levitt, Natalie Portman and Rainn Wilson. Additional co-ventures with Exclusive are in the works. Ball added on an interview for Indiewire: “Whilst there may be challenges in the independent theatrical world right now, it is also a time of great growth and opportunity as new methods of distribution are being tried and developed. Forming Wrekin Hill will give me and my partners the flexibility to work on a wide variety of films and craft distribution plans that are unique and appropriately scaled for each film we acquire.”
William Tyrer’s last movie production was in 2008, Prom Night. He was the executive producer. The movie made $48 million from a $20 million budget.
It will be exciting to see what the future of Newmarket has in store. Several films, including The Odds, a love story, and Evel, a film about Evel Knievel, are currently in preproduction. Evel will be based on Leigh Montville’s, The High-Flying Life of Evel Knievel: American Showman, Daredevil, and Legend. Films currently in production by Newmarket include, Agent:Century 21 in pre-production, Gaslight, Rush in post-prod, Snitch, completed with a budget of $35 million, featuring “The Rock”, A Walk among the Tombstones, in pre-prod, Can a song save your life? in post, Still of night, in pre-prod, The green inferno, currently in filming, The quiet, in post, and Therese, in post-production.
Sources: about.com, wikipedia, imdb, independent.com, box office mojo, cnn, nzonscreen.com, variety, hollywood reporter, chasingthefrog.com, Indiewire, “Memento.” By Dr. Claire Molloy Book (9780748637720), LaTimes.com, hollywood.com
Written and Researched by: Teighe Thorsen, Carlos Parada, and Darnley Hodge
Edited by: Teighe Thorsen